Den islamske sivilisasjonen
Ghusul, complete body wash
Performing “Ghusul” (washing the whole body) on a regular basis is strongly recommended and is considered as part of Muhammad’s Sunnah (teachings and way of life). However, Ghusul is a must for purity on certain occasions (e.g. after marital contact and menstruation).
Muhammad emphasized cleanliness and purification in all aspects of life. He asked his companions to clean their homes and surroundings regularly. He taught them that removing harm or garbage from the road is a rewardable charity act.
Also, Muhammad urged his companions to maintain high personal hygiene and cleanliness. His sayings in this context indicate the following:
Miswak er et vanlig navn for planten Salvadora persica, som inneholder store mengder silisium. Miswak blir brukt i de ﬂeste muslimske land, India, SørøstAsia og enkelte land i Afrika. Det er en kvist man kan bruke som tannbørste, eller eventuelt tygge på for munnhygiene, og den ferner eﬀektivt dårlig ånde. En kjemisk analyse av miswak viser at den inneholder en rekke nyttige mineraler og andre stoﬀer som ﬂuor, kvarts, vitamin C, samt små mengder med klorid, garvesyre, saponin, ﬂavonoid og steroler
Father of Chemistry
|was a prominent polymath: a chemist, astronomer, astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. He is considered by many scientists to be the father of chemistry. He was the first to discover many acids such as nitric, hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. He described many chemical processes such as evaporation, sublimation and distillation. The historian of chemistry Eric John Holmyard gives credit to Geber for developing alchemy into an experimental science.|
Father of Algorithms
|was one of the greatest scientists of his time. He was a mathematician, an astronomer and a geographer. He introduced the decimal positional number system to the world. He made a great contribution to Mathematics when he developed Algebra (derived from the word Al-Jabr) and “algorithms” which were named after him. His name is the origin of the word guarismo in Spanish and the word algarismo in Portuguese, both meaning digit.|
Father of Physicians
|He was considered by many scientists as the father of physicians. He was the first to differentiate smallpox from measles. He discovered numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol and kerosene. Edward Granville Browne considers him as the most original of all the physicians. He wrote many important books which were translated to different languages including English such as “Al-Hawi” medical Encyclopedia, The Big Pharmacology, Kidney and Bladder Stones and The Book of Experiences.|
Father of Modern Medicine
|is one of the most eminent Muslim scholars in medicine and one of the most famous Muslim scientists in the world. He was a polymath and the author of almost 200 books on science, religion and philosophy. Avicenna’s two most important works are: Shifa (The Book of Healing) which is a philosophical encyclopedia based on Aristotelian tradition and Al Qanun Fi-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). The Canon is a 14-volume book, which classifies and describes diseases, and outlines their assumed causes. It was translated to different languages and was a standard medical text in Europe for seven centuries (until early 18th century).|
|He is best known for writing the “Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices” where he described fifty mechanical devices along with instructions on how to construct them. Al-Jazari is also known as the inventor of the largest astronomical “castle clock”, which is considered to be the first programmable analog computer. According to Donald Routledge Hill, Al-Jazari described the most sophisticated candle clocks. He also invented the water clock and the crank shaft that transforms rotary motion into linear motion.|